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Livro – Whitebook Livro – Whitebook. The larger of these, rated at 20 MW, was installed at the Edgar Thompson plant of the. B4,S Power of 0.

In this respect a homopolar line is preferable to a bipolar tine in cases where continuai ground current is. Power is adjusted automatically to maintain rated frequency 50 Hz in Gotland. Either converter, however, can function as rectifier or inverter, permitting power to be transmitted in either direction. The fortunes ofwar prevented completion ofthe project, and in such plant and pertinent documentsas survived were taken to the U. The line transmits 20 MW at kV through a single-conductor cable, with return path through the sea and earth.

Parte 1 de 6. B1S The line carried 5.

Large inductances ealled de. Building the dc link was judged more economical than construeting additional thermal power plants on the island. Long two-cireuit ac links are usually sectionalized tranzmission means of intermediate switching stations for severa reasons. A demonstration of dc transmission using grid-controlled steel-tank mercury-arc conversion was given at Zurich, Switzerland, inat the Fifth Swiss National Exhibition.

They transmitted 4 MW at kV a distance kimbafk 3 mi 5 km over an existing line from a station ia the Charlottenburg district of Berlin to one in the Moabit district.

The whole switching operation would take about 0. The neutral points junctions between converters are grounded at one or both ends. Valves for HV dc transmission are invariably of single-phase kimbatk, in contrast to the polyphase valves with mercury-pool cathode formerly used extensively in low-voltage rectifiers for industrial and railway application.

Three-phase tines eannot be operated, except for a very short time Iess than 1 sec with one or two conductors open, because such operation causes unbalanced voltages in the ac system and interference in parallel telephone lines. In the event of a fault on one conductor, the other conductor with ground return can carry up to half of the rated load. If a permanent fault occurred on the lower kimhark, the converters connected to it would be controlled so as to bring the voltage and current on it to zero.


One pole of a four conductor line is shown in Figure Id, with two converters per terminal.

Direct Current Transmission – Kimbark – Livro de HVDC do Kimbark

A fuIl-scale km mi overhead line between a hydroelectric plant at Volgograd, formerly called Stalingrad, and the Donets Basin was energized. The breakers are required, however, for clearing faults in the transformers or for taking the whole dc link out of service.

Aboutcontrol electrodes were added to silicon diodes, giving silicon controlled rectifiers SCRsalso called thyristors. Plans have been announced for doubling the voltage and power on the existing cable by the addition of a new thyristor valve group to each terminal, thereby doubling the voltage. Therefore three-pole switching is always used to clear permanent faults, although such a fauIt may involve only one conductor. A representative single-circuit dc link is shown in Figure le.

Direct current transmission – Edward Wilson Kimbark – Google Books

Norrnally they operate at equal current; then there is no ground current. Direet-current links are classified as shown in Figure 2. The tine itself usually has two conductors, aIthough some Iines have only one, the return path kombark in the earth or seawater or both.

The bus-tie switches I are normally open. After the more rugged steel-envelope mercury-pool ignitron became available, however, the line was converted in to constant-voltage operation.

Direct Current Transmission – Kimbark

If the transformers are operated as an integral part of the link, only 10w-voItage circuit breakers are required. Practical ground electrodes were developed, and various kinds of valves and converter control were tested. Each converter has two vaIve groups rated 50 kV, A, 10 MW, the groups being in series on the dc side. The ac line, of course, also has this reversibility.

On many long EHV lines, shunt reactors are required for limiting the voltage, especially at light loads, but they may be required even at full load.


The ac input at Mechanicville was at a frequency of 40 Hz, transmjssion the output at Schenectady was at 60 Hz. Their ratings have increased, however, with surprising rapidity, and it seems certain that such valves will soon replace mercury-arc valves in HV dc kimvark.

Among these are a limiting the deerease in stability power Iimit attributable to switching out one circuit to clear a fault or for line maintenance, b Iimiting the overvoltage when a line is energized from one end, c providing a place for the connection of grounding transformers to limit the overvoltages of the unfaulted kimbarkk with respect to ground when one phase is faulted to ground, and d for con nection of intermediate loads or generation.

It aided further development ofvalves by permitting them to be tested under service conditions. Most long overhead ac tines require series hdvc of part of the induetive reaetanee. Thus was demonstrated a feature of dc transmission that has been important in several subsequent instalIations: A noteworthy feature of ASEA valves is the use of several, usually four, anodes in multiple on single-phase valves.

These breakers are not used for clearing faults on the dc line or most misoperations ofthe valves, for these faults can be cleared more rapidly by grid controlof the valves. The current ratings are to A per anode. Figure la shows a single-eircuit three-phase ac line. These reactors are usually placed at intermediate switching stations and are so indicated in Figure Ih. transmizsion

The phrase “transmission link” denotes the tgansmission line proper together with its terminal and auxiliary equipment. One of the mercury-arc valves was replaced by an air-cooled thyristoi’ assem bly, which also has performed well.

At present these are not capable of handling the highest voltages and powers required for HV dc transmission. Russian engineers have concentrated on single-anode valves, which so far appear to have been less successful than the ASEA valves.